Wingmaran 15 Study Plans Download
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Design by: Mark S. Palmquist
Date: Nov. 13, 2023
LOA: 15' [4.57M]
LWL: 14' -3" [4.33]
Beam Hull: 28" [71cm]
Beam Hiking seats: 62" [158cm]
Beam Wings: 11' [3.36M]
Draft Hull: 5.2" [13cm]
Weight: ̃185 lb [84Kg]
Crew: 1-3 400lb max [182Kg]
6 cubic feet [168 liters]
Flotation chambers: 540 liters
In the mid 1980’s my father, Martti J. Palmquist, came up with the idea of adding a hydroplaning wing positioned above the water line and in front of the center of effort of the sail to prevent heeling and pitching. He proceeded to build and test a series of 5 prototypes and file a USPO patent titled “hydroplaning wing sailing craft”. His 4th and 5th prototypes, which were 18’ and 20’ long respectively, attained speeds over 21 knots. Tragically he died in a plane crash in June 1989 before building a larger test boat. He predicted a top speed of “50 knots, maybe more” for a 40’-60’ long boat.
5 years ago, I asked myself: “does my father’s concept still have merit today?”. My first assumption was that of course, the world has progressed beyond his concept and hydro-foiling wings are now everywhere and must be better. There are even hydrofoils attached to the bottoms of windsurfers. I, being an avid windsurfer, started googling the fastest windsurfing speeds with and without hydrofoils attached and was shocked when I learned that windsurfers without hydrofoils are faster. So why are all the America’s Cup boats up on hydrofoil wings? It seems to be that they are able to go much faster in lighter winds. So, on days when the wind is only 8 knots, the races are still very exciting to watch and can be very dramatic, and the boats go much faster than if they were in displacement mode. The wingmaran starts to hydroplane around 7 knots and accelerates very quickly. The predicted top speed of this boat is 12 to 16 knots with a larger sail.
How does the wing work?:
The wing is positioned above the water level, the wing has an inclined bottom surface and a flat top surface, the wing tip is positioned in line with the center of effort of the sail, which is a diagonal line passing through the center of pressure of the sail and going forward and to the lee of the boat. Imagine a line coming off the middle of the sail 25-30 degrees forward of beam. The wing is positioned transversely so that it is more efficient and it has a wingtip spoiler to increase lift. When the boat goes over a certain speed (hump speed), the wing begins to hydroplane, which means it deflects the water downward (without much drag) and the resulting force on the wing tip is upwards lift. At low speeds, the wing is not efficient, so it is kept above the water line by shifting your weight. A hydroplaning wing is similar to an underwater hydrofoil, except with 1 wetted surface instead of 4 (2 on the wing horizontal wing and 2 on the vertical mast). So, the wing has less drag than a hydrofoil at both low and high speeds. Just like with a hydrofoil boat, the wing lift shifts the pivot point of the boat to leeward which allows much of the hull to rise out of the water reducing its drag, allowing the boat to accelerate and push beyond its length waterline speed limit.
After 5 years of research and testing scale models, I built a 14’ wingmaran in 2023 and, with a 75 SF sunfish sail, it attained a top speed of over 12 knots on Oct. 30th, 2023, on the Chesapeake Bay going on a beam reach. The boat also went 10.7 knots downwind and 7 knots upwind. With enough wind, it can hydroplane upwind, cross wind and downwind.
The wingmaran 15 is an improved version of the Wingmaran 14. I have not built a Wingmaran 15, yet, but it incorporates the same hinging method used by my father on his last prototype that he made and tested for 2 years from 1987 to June of 89.
• 1 foot longer
• 1” more hull width
• much more hull volume (600 lb)
• a pointier bow for better upwind performance
• an improved wing connection
• improvements to the positions of the dagger board, sail, wing, and center of buoyancy
• a self-draining cockpit
• a wider rudder for better tacking
• a stronger mast step box
• 3 mast step holes to accommodate a variety of sail rigs 75-100 SF
If you have never made a sailboat before I do not recommend this boat for you. If you have made 1 sailboat, then yes. The hull is chine log construction which is very easy and fast. The front half of the boat is made first, then the back. Then the 2 halves are permanently bolted and glued together. Then the folding wings and rudder housing are attached. The underside of the boat and all surfaces of the wings will be epoxy coated. 1 layer of carbon fiber is recommended on the bottom surface of the wings.
Because the boat is designed with 3 mast step holes, a variety of sail rigs will work including standard sunfish, sunfish turbo, Rocket by Fulcrum (either their standard sail or their new interceptor sail), a laser rig, possibly a Melges 14 rig, gold (unconfirmed). The plans also include a custom square topped lug sail with battens designed specifically for the wingmaran 15 that has 2 reef points. The wingmaran 15 may also work with other popular balanced lug sails sold for other boats. If you plan on installing a sail rig over 96 square feet, I
recommend adding 3 mast stays.
When sailing upwind, shift weight forward, when sailing downwind shift weight backwards. The boat is most unstable below hydroplaning speeds and coming out of a tack. Once the boat is traveling 7-8 knots it is virtually impossible to capsize.
The wings fold upward for trailering
1 wing can be hinged upwards and tied off for docking
The wings are above the water line, so they do not create drag when rowing. The wings are far enough forward so that long oars do not hit the wings.
While you could sleep in the back of the boat, it is not designed for that, however, there is a large 168-liter storage compartment in the front of the boat for camping gear and food. I am designing a 16’ long version called Wingmaran 16-X that will have a small front cabin to accommodate 1 person.
Imperial & metric
Instructions and full size patterns